Thursday, March 12, 2020
Women in the Development of Science Essay The Role of Women in the Development of Science, Engineering, Technology Sectors Essay The Role of Women in the Development of Science, Engineering, Technology Sectors Essay The gender inequality in science, engineering, and technology fields has been a contentious topic among social scientists, lawyers, and feminists for decades. Despite their limited entry to the areas of science and technology, women have had significant roles to play in these fields. The majority of females who have had a significant impact on science and technology have been advocating for equal opportunities and for a smoother entry into these areas. Contrariwise, technological change has had both negative and positive influences on the roles of women in the development of science and technology. Regardless of that, bearing in mind that more women are earning degrees in science and technology than men are, the future advancement of the two fields depends on the contributions of females and their longevity in the scientific careers. Gender Differences in Science and Technology Fields For decades, numerous studies have been conducted in an attempt to explain the imbalance between men and women in science, engineering, and technology fields. Social scientists have studied the variances while lawyers have endeavored to fix the imbalance. Post-feminist society, on the other hand, seems to have come to terms with this fact. Nonetheless, men still outnumber women in science, engineering, and technology fields. In recent years, most blatant discrimination against women in engineering and technology fields has been diminished through academic, legal, and government measures. However, an atmosphere that is at least less than entirely friendly to women is yet to be realized, and its consistency is largely taken for granted. The percentage of females attaining doctorate degrees in engineering and technology fields has increased marginally in recent years. According to the National Science Foundation report, in 2003 women comprised just below one-third of doctorate degrees in science, while the engineering sector had just below one-tenth of doctorates awarded to females (Rossiter, 2012, p. 375). Yet, few women hold the top-level faculty spots. The National Science Foundation reveals that in 1972 women made up approximately 3 percent of full-time professors in engineering and technology fields; this figure has risen to 10 percent in less than three decades (Rossiter, 2012, p. 376). Roles Played by Women in the Development of Science and Technology Fields The science and technology sectors could not have attained their achievements with the exclusion of the contributions made by women. While their impact has been undeniably significant, it is necessary to highlight concrete examples of the contributions of females in these sectors. Jewel Plummer Cobb and Grace Murray Hopper are case examples worth to be mentioned. Jewel Plummer Cobb As a groundbreaking cancer researcher, cell biologist, and a brilliant professor, Jewel Plummer Cobb has had an unquestionable impact on the scientific community. Her research on skin cells that create melanin has reached its culmination when she has shown how the cells develop into cancerous cells (Ceci Williams, 2010, p. 7). Additionally, she has been in the forefront of campaigns for equal access to professional opportunities and education for women and minorities. Even with personal challenges such as increased sexism and racism Jewel Plummer Cobb has always been committed to utilizing her success for inspiring women to undertake the fields of science, mathematics, and engineering (Ceci Williams, 2010, p. 7). In the course of her professional life, Jewel Plummer Cobb worked determinedly to improve opportunities for women to venture into traditionally male-dominated occupations. Of course, there were monetary challenges, but she would turn to private sources for funds. Regardless of the obstacles she faced, she never deviated from her convictions that equal education was vital to a fruitful and independent life (Ceci Williams, 2010, p. 8). The woman believed that the hindrances that females face in the academic system were encouraged by cumulative disadvantage factors that prevented other women from careers in science, engineering, and technology fields. Jewel Plummer Cobb identified several aspects as deterrents to women in their advancing in male-dominated careers. They were the variance in socialization of the two sexes, weakened self-confidence, and hopes regarding the influence of children on womens educational careers (Ceci Williams, 2010, p. 8). Grace Murray Hopper Grace Murray Hopper is known for achieving great heights as a woman and an innovator in the technology sector. Having attained a PhD degree in math, her academic achievements were already a rarity among women in the 1930s. In fact, statistics reveals that during the period since 1862 to 1934, a mere 1,279 PhDs in math were awarded (Ã¢â¬Å"Grace Murray HopperÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). Grace Murray Hopper joined the women volunteer service, which was headed by the Naval Reserve, where she aided in designing a machine that would compute complicated calculations for the military at war. Her dedication to the task helped her team build the first programmable digital computer (Ã¢â¬Å"Grace Murray HopperÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). After the war, she worked on several projects with key innovators such as the developers of ENIAC, one of the first computers ever created. Her ingenuity helped develop the first computer that used punch cards and the first programming language to incorporate English words (Ã¢â¬Å"Grace Murray HopperÃ¢â¬ , n.d.). In the developing world, women have also assumed vital roles in the development of science, technology, and engineering sectors. Lydia Makhubu, for instance, the leader of the Third World Organization for Women in Science and a vice-chancellor of the University of Swaziland, insists that females have to play a pivotal role in shaping of the policies for sustainable development in the changing world (Dickson, 2002). Women have customarily been involved in health, energy, and food production industries, which are the focus of development. Due to their intimacy with the family, females have an exceptional attitude to science and its relevance, which highlights the human element of science and technology, as well as its importance in empowering humankind (Dickson, 2002). According to Makhubu, the majority of women choosing scientific careers opt for life sciences (Dickson, 2002). The move should be deemed a strong and encouraging action considering the issues of the developing world. She also highlighted that women have been actively involved in dissemination of culture, taking into account their intimate devotion to the education of children. As a result, females have been significant transmitters of norms and values across generations (Dickson, 2002). Due to their success in other fields, women ought to be in the frontline of the incorporation of culture and science, as well as in creating policies for research, and building a future where human needs form a harmonious foundation for scientific and technological endeavors. There is, thus, a need to reevaluate the relevance of females in the technological and scientific enterprises. This is the only way to achieve feasible sustainable development strategies, according to Makhubu (Dickson, 2002). Importance of Women in the Development of Science and Technology Fields In a 2015 discussion on involving more women in the fields of science and technology for significant growth in Africa, Ayodotun Bobadoye, a Research Officer at the African Technology Policy Study Network, reviewed the overlooked state of science and technology in Africa (Ã¢â¬Å"Engaging Women for Africas Future: The Role of Women in Science, Technology, and InnovationÃ¢â¬ , 2015). He asserted that approximately 0.4% of GDP in Africa was dedicated to research and development activities, ranking the continent the underdog in research output, numbers of researchers, and the number of registered patents and publications worldwide (Ã¢â¬Å"Engaging Women for Africas Future: The Role of Women in Science, Technology, and InnovationÃ¢â¬ , 2015). According to Bobadoye, the African Union Strategy for Science, Technology, and Innovation Development is profoundly flawed in its disregard for marginalized groups such as women, despite the fact they make up more than a half of AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s po pulation (Ã¢â¬Å"Engaging Women for Africas Future: The Role of Women in Science, Technology, and InnovationÃ¢â¬ , 2015). For growth initiatives to flourish, they must include women. Bobadoye proposed various ways to increase femaleÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in science and technology sectors. First of the proposals includes mainstreaming women into science and technology strategies and policies. Secondly, one can enhance the participation of females by expanding access of young women to scientific education at all levels. Additionally, one can raise awareness of the impact of women on science and technology sectors and ensure ample female representation in policy-making endeavors. Moreover, one can create a universal hub of female scientists that would help in mentorship programs (Ã¢â¬Å"Engaging Women for Africas Future: The Role of Women in Science, Technology, and InnovationÃ¢â¬ , 2015). Effects of Technological Change on Roles of Women and Ideas of Gender In the last three decades, there has been an impressive rise in the number of women earning degrees in engineering, science, and technology disciplines. The growth tends to conceal other characteristics of the science and technology workforce demography. For instance, it masks the decrease in the number of white US men in the fields over recent decades despite they had been dominating the engineering, science, and technology workforce in the United States. However, by trying to balance the numbers, women are now earning more masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degrees than men. A 2007 National Science Foundation report affirms that in 2004, US women earned approximately 58 percent of all bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degrees and 59 percent of all masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degrees in all fields (Laurence, 2010, p. 4). In 2000, US females earned more bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degrees in science and engineering fields than men did, although they earned nearly 44 percent of the masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degrees in the same fields. In 2004, US women received approximately 61 percent of PhD degrees in sectors other than science and engineering while receiving roughly 45 percent of PhD in science and engineering (Laurence, 2010, p. 5). The majority of the women who receive PhD in science leave right after they commence with academic employment. They exit the workforce due to certain obstacles that prevent them from continuing in the field or from realizing their full potential as professionals. While some of the barriers are new, Rosser documents that obstacles from three decades ago still linger, but taking the form of different, behavior, language, and structure (Rosser, 2004). The answer to the question why women exit the science, engineering, and technology workforce is not genetic nature or a lack of interest; otherwise, female students would underachieve their male colleagues in colleges. Existing data reveals the contrary: women outdo men in academics and graduate at a higher rate, while having a better attitude towards studies (Jhon, Lee S, Lee K, 2006, p. 124). Statistical research and case studies concerning those two critical factors are noticeable among the various forces driving women to exit the science, engineering, and technology workforce: the requirement to balance family and career and the lack of proficient networks (Jhon et al., 2006, p. 124). Marriage and family come with responsibilities that can shorten a flourishing career of both men and female engineers and scientists. J. Scott Long, a sociologist and statistician, argues in his book that single men and women contribute equally to the science, engineering, and technology workforce (Long, 2001, p. 26). However, a married female with a PhD has a 13 percent less chance of being employed than a married man with equivalent credentials (Long, 2001, p. 26). Moreover, if the woman has young children, she stands a 30 percent less chance of being employed than a single man (Long, 2001, p. 26). FemalesÃ¢â¬â¢ biological nature is often a cause of the dwindling numbers of qualified women in the workforce. Numerous studies documented womenÃ¢â¬â¢s tussle to balance family and career life. In a 2004 survey conducted by Rosser, for instance, reveals that of the 450 female engineers and scientists working in research universities, over 70 percent mentioned the mounting pressure they had in trying to strike the balance between family and career (Rosser, 2004). They further admitted that this was their primary challenge faced towards attaining professional advancement (Rosser, 2004). TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s technology has, on the one hand, eased the pressures faced by women in science, engineering, and technology sectors, while, on the other hand, even worsened the situation. Many higher education institutions are revising and improving their policies in response to the global focus on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in science, as well as the shortages in science, engineering, and technology workforce due to the security measures launched after September 11, 2001 (Rossiter, 2012, p. 379). The security measures made it hard for skilled non-US workers to acquire US visas. To attract and retain more women to high-tech entrepreneurship and science, there is the need to transform the culture of science and technology into a more family-friendly and inviting venture. Owing to technological advancements, science, engineering, and technology departments in universities in the United States are incorporating finance, marketing, and management business training programs into graduate education. The increased advancement in technology has forced tech employers seek for employees who are refined in leadership, project management, and business skills. Women often did not receive such mentoring in graduate school, but technology has accelerated the need for training programs, which would eventually help a smoother transition of females into the science, engineering, and technology workforce (Rossiter, 2012, p. 381). Although men are no longer prohibiting women from their academic laboratories, cultural and institutional biases still exist and cripple female scientists. A solution to curb the inequalities in the workforce, which is low-cost and potentially widely acceptable, is the enforcement of existing antidiscrimination laws by the government. When the sixth, seventh, and the ninth titles of the Civil Rights Act are enforced, biased distribution of resources in faculties in terms of salary supplements, laboratory space, start-up packages, salary supplements, and university funding will no longer exist (Rossiter, 2012, p. 383). Next, the United States, as a whole, must disallow the depiction of female scientists and engineers as special interest groups. Women comprise almost half of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s population and now receive more undergraduate degrees in science than men do. Due to the income advantage that science, engineering, and technology professions bring, the failure to establish family-friendly relationships threatens to segregate women economically. Additionally, a 2006 research by the Ã¢â¬ËEngineers Dedicated to a Better TomorrowÃ¢â¬â¢ group affirms that females are more enticed with science, engineering, and technology professions when they consider it a tangible contribution to the society, as well as in improving local communities and the world in general (Rossiter, 2012, p. 384). In conclusion, the imbalance between men and women in science, engineering, and technology fields has been a major concern for decades. Despite the then-existing barriers to prevailing in male-dominated fields, women have somehow overcome the challenges. Unsung heroes such as Jewel Plummer Cobb and Grace Murray Hopper have had significant roles to play in the areas of science and technology, where they prevailed in the male-dominated professions and inspired women across the globe. The developing world has taken a different shape in identifying the roles played by females in science, engineering, and technology fields, mainly due to their difference in priorities comparing to those of the developed countries. Nonetheless, the significance of women in these fields is acknowledged, and measures to ease the entry of women to these fields are being enacted. Lastly, technological advancements have had its fair share of positive and negative impacts on females in science and engineering fi elds. However, with the ongoing policies to offer equal opportunities for men and women in the three fields, the future is more promising for the latter of the male-dominated professions.
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
The Spectacle of Terror - Essay Example Now a day, violence on television has become concrete representation of class conflict in the society. The easy accessibility to the media technology helped quickly revealing many significant events across the country. For instance, the police trial and consequent unrest in Los Angeles, the Rodney King beating, and the 9/11, together with the alarming revelation of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s vulnerability towards international terrorist attacks. The media has become an integral part of the real and essential assemblies of various social institutions like, hospitals, schools, political, administrative and military systems, even in religions. The media has the power to lead gathering and transmitting news, advertising, conducting campaigns. In the same way, there is a widely accepted belief that Ã¢â¬Å"those who make the headlines have the power.Ã¢â¬ Moreover, the media plays significant role for successfully conducting and executing wars, educational programs, entertainment, and socializ ation. The influences the media have on such social enterprises are legitimate points for evaluating the impacts of saturation too. Even though the general individual homicide rates in U.S. have been steady for many years, there is an increase in the number of school-aged children towards homicidal attitudes. Since 1980s, there have been a sudden rise in the gun-related homicides among the teens and several publicized murders have taken place in schools making the issue too complicated to handle. The violence among youth is attributed to the permutation of various factors, which impede their emotional ad social developments. Obviously, visual media has played a great role in creating such drastic situation. Today, visual media has become an invasive element of American family life, and symbolic violence illustrated in such medium has become a significant social issue. Therefore, such obvious revelation underlines the question of mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to form awareness and attitude within the mass, especially the youth. We find it too hard to form counterbalancing factors to the violent death themes exemplified by the media. Moreover, the ability to discrete between fantasy and reality is very less in the children, adversely affecting them by creating misconception of death in their mind. Hence, consequences are getting enlarged in an age of media modernization, expansion, and saturation. When the media content is in progress with technology and culture, it influences the method in which reality is comprehended. The modern perceptive and assessment of violence at the hands of government representatives and terrorists are customized and memorized by the present media technologies. In the same way, visual media often undergoes a phenomenon called Ã¢â¬Å"disaster marathons,Ã¢â¬ days and weeks of intense and continuous media coverage of massive tragedies such as, the 9/11 and its aftermath. In the opinion of Fischoff (2005), it creates all kind of possible dest ructive consequences on viewers and on journalistsÃ¢â¬â¢ ethics due to the emotionally saturated over coverage of these traumatizing events. Undoubtedly, the media passes on entertainment and related diversions to all segments of people. The foremost audio-visual medium that
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Boardman Management RFP Assesment - Article Example At the primary stage of analysis, Boardman Management will need to investigate the possibility of using lower-priced materials. If this is not possible, the organizational structure will be redesigned to take advantage of lower-priced materials. Such an approach will enable the company to remain competitive and, in some cases, beat the prices of its competitors. Additionally, the assessment will be made regarding the possibility of storing the cost data for in-process items on-line within the computerized information system so that cost data would always be up to date. With the implementation of such an approach, the problem of out-of-date standard cost figures should never recur (Burkun, 2006). The analysis of the budget will be an important step for Boardman Management to evaluate and calculate investment decisions. Budgets are both planning and control mechanisms that, although essential to control (particularly cost control), serve as a balance between planning and control. They refer to future periods of time, and translate company plans into financial resources. They furnish a guide for future expenditures, and by helping to guide actual performance toward budgeted performance, assist in the achievement of objectives. Budgets establish expected relationships among a number of factors in need of control, such as expenses for advertising, product planning, personal selling, and product development. They may be thought of as short-run aspects of planning (Burkun, 2006). The next step is to analyze the proposed structure of changes and their impact on the organization. The evaluation will uncover an important problem that is not included initially in the investigation. The assistant analysis will take several directions. The company will analyze costs required for implementation and change management, and time schedule. The cost control difficulties caused by restructuring are not hard for the experienced outside auditors to detect. However, developing appropriate recommendations in the form of cost control procedures take a little more time. Such analysis requires the development of different cost information, with cost classifications normally supplied by accounting statements. But generating relevant cost information from accounting statements, though conceptually simple, is actually quite complicated. First, the problem of discerning the costs of different activities is not easy (Burkun, 2006). Second, the allocation of costs among functions and other control units involves subjective judgments. Accountants classify expenditures on a natural basis. Hence, costs may be assigned to advertising, personal selling, transportation, warehousing, and sales promotion. The real purpose of these expenditures, however, is to achieve other objectives, such as sales, market position, image, and reputation. The next step of responses evaluation is to analyze pros and cons of the proposed software and its benefits for the company. The effectiveness of management and its staff in fulfilling their assigned tasks is evaluated. Within the next subsection, the ability of R&D management to exert the necessary leadership to accomplish stated objectives and oversee R&D projects effectively is examined. In a somewhat similar manner, the upward and downward flows of information between different departments and its staff
Thursday, January 30, 2020
A comparison of the development of tragedy Essay This essay compares the differences and similarities in the way in which the tragedies develop in Macbeth and A View from the Bridge. Macbeth is a more intense tragedy, as innocent people die as a result of his madness, before he himself is killed. A View from the Bridge is a softer tragedy, dealing with two men who want the same lady. Straightaway, with such a high-powered storyline, Macbeth is going to be the more intense tragedy. The aim of a tragedy is to inspire a mix of emotions in the reader, where they have attachments to both sides, and to present an unfortunate sequence of events that cause an unfortunate ending. With so many more characters involved in Macbeth and a much longer sequence of events, it can be considered better at creating a mix of emotion in people, and thus might be considered the better tragedy. Both of the primary victims in Macbeth and A View from the Bridge performed a favour for the individual that murdered them, which adds to the tragedy. In Macbeth, Macbeth murders King Duncan in order to become king. King Duncan refers to Macbeth as his Ã¢â¬Ëworthiest kinsmanÃ¢â¬â¢ and his Ã¢â¬Ëworthy CawdorÃ¢â¬â¢ after he made Macbeth thane of Cawdor, which was a rank of nobility. Furthermore, upon staying within the Macbeth household, Duncan Ã¢â¬Ëgranted many giftsÃ¢â¬â¢. He presented a diamond to Lady Macbeth for her Ã¢â¬Ëboundless hospitalityÃ¢â¬â¢. This makes DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s death evermore tragic and unjust, as he did not deserve to die. Similarly, in A View from the Bridge, Eddie offers two illegal immigrants a place to stay in his home while they find work, and insists he has to Ã¢â¬Ëbuy a tableclothÃ¢â¬â¢ to make his guests feel more welcome. Yes, EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Roldolpho sours, but his initial welcoming was an act of kindness. In both Macbeth and A View from the Bridge, the story started off well. During the development of the tragedies, Eddie went against advice from Alferi, which was to leave Catherine and Roldolpho to it. Had Eddie taken this advice, he would likely still be alive, so ignoring the advice lead to his demise. Contrarily, it can be argued that Macbeth took a lot of advice from Lady Macbeth and bended to her will. Macbeth was very uncertain about taking this advice, as he considered his loyalty to Duncan as his Ã¢â¬Ëkinsman and his subjectÃ¢â¬â¢, and recognised that Duncan had his own noble qualities, as he Ã¢â¬Ë[h]ath borne his faculties so meekÃ¢â¬â¢. Had Macbeth not taken this advice and listened to himself, he would probably also still be alive. This is a difference in the development of the tragedies because both victims took opposite decisions, but ultimately ended up with the same fate. Macbeth was killed by Macduff, because previously Macbeth had murdered Lady Macduff and their children. Macbeth had not harmed Macduff himself, so he had not directly attacked the man who killed him, but the people who were close to him. Marco killed Eddie, though Eddie had not had problems with Marco, only Roldolpho. Thus, both characters were killed by people they had not directly attacked. This adds to the tragedy in both cases because it might cause the viewer to have some sympathy for the victim, or sympathy for the murderers who acted out of revenge in both cases. More sympathy might be afforded for Eddie than Macbeth, because the fate that Eddie got was not one he had inflicted on anyone else. While he lunged at Marco with a knife, it could have been that he was acting out of self-defence. However, Macbeth had ordered the deaths of absolutely innocent people. Lady Macduff, her children, Banquo and Duncan and the chamberlains, and had planned to kill other innocent people Ã¢â¬â Macduff and Fleance. Thus, in this case, it could be argued that MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s fate was a certain kind of karma. The same cannot be said for Eddie in A View from a Bridge, so this might cause the reader to have more sympathy for Eddie than more Macbeth. Macbeth focuses more on the depths of despair that its characters fall into more than A View from a Bridge. Lady MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s personal tragedy is explained, her blood-stained hands and her dreams and her eventual suicide may make the reader feel her tragedy as well as her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s. DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s fall into the depths of despair are also poetically made apparent, through soliloquies and expressions such as Ã¢â¬ËWill all NeptuneÃ¢â¬â¢s great ocean wash this bloodÃ¢â¬â¢, which is the expression of DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s blood on his hands that haunts Macbeth throughout the play. The reader isnÃ¢â¬â¢t given the same insight into the raw mix of emotions in each character in A View from the Bridge, so the same mix of opinions of the characters is difficult to achieve. To conclude, while there are similarities and differences between the development of tragedy in both Macbeth and A View from a Bridge, Macbeth gives a much fuller and complex development of tragedy. It has so many elements in its plot and unfortunates in the sequence of events that lead to the end that it is difficult to fully explore its development of tragedy in comparison with such a short book.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Use of Imagery in MacbethÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As defined in the Webster's Students Dictionary, imagery is a figurative term which reveals description by applying the five senses. William Shakespeare's usage of the imagery of animals, the imagery of blood, the imageries of clothing and weather, are frequently shown throughout the play. Through examples of imageries of animals, Shakespeare uses literary elements such as symbolism. Before Suncan's assassination, animals, such as the owl and the falcon, emerged from the night and acted unnatural, "even like the deeds that's done." "It was the owl that shrieked, the fatal bellman, which gives the stern'st good-night." In Act 2, scene 2, Lady Macbeth waits anxiously for Macbeth to return from killing Duncan, the King of Scotland. The step that Macbeth is leaping over goes against the rules of nature, and when thsi happens, animals and weather erupt. The owl is a bellman because, according to superstition, the hoot of the owl portends death. He is fatal, perhaps because he death and horror. thus, when the owls screamed and the crickets cried, it symbolized evil and ominous doings. In Act 2, scene 4, Ross and an old man exchange accounts of the disturbed night and the recent unnatural happenings. Hours seemed dreadful and things strange. The heavens and animals are troubled by man's presence on earth's stage, where he performs his bloody acts. The night has been unruly, houses and chimneys were being destroyed by fierceful winds, and everything was filled with "dire combustion." The indistinguishable bird of darkness, the owl, clamored the night. "A falcon, tow'ring in her pride of place, was by a mousing owl, whose normal prey is a mouse. The night has become more powerful than the day or else the day is hiding its face in shame. Also, Macbeth's horses, the choicest examples of their breed, turned feral, as they broke their stalls, and were said to have eaten each other. Horses do not each other. Bizarre events occured the night Duncan was murdered by Macbeth. These dreadful events took place at night, a symbolic reference to the evil doings of men. There is a sense of fear, wonderment, amazement, and mystery. An atmosphere of death is symbolized by the behavior of the animals of the night. "The raven himself is hoarse that croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan under my battlements." In Act I, scene 5, Lady Macbeth has already planned the assassination.
Monday, January 13, 2020
From my perspective, the main factor contributes to the difference in FDI and economic growth in China and India are institutions. There are two kinds of institutions; one is formal institution, including political system, legal system and economic system, another one is informal institution, which consists of culture, business norms and ethics. As for political system in India, which labeled as Ã¢â¬Å"sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic.Ã¢â¬ It is similar to America, it has the federal form of government, its central government is patterned after the British parliamentary system, and several Parties are able to take control of the nation, but the main power to control the country is the central government. Compare with Chinese communist totalitarianism, India is more democratic in terms of the political system. In other, words, it is more easier to set up your own business in India and which may absorb more capital thanks to the democratic political system in India. According to the corruption perceptions index 2012, India got the score of 36, and China got the score of 39, the lower score means the country is highly corrupt in the public sector. Therefore, China is more attractive to foreign investors in terms of the corruption level. As for political risk, thanks to corruption and the departure of several key allies for India, the government has been weakened in India, which make India less attractive for foreign investment to compare with China. As for protecting intellectual property right, the provisions of intellectual property right in India is more comprehensive than Chinese, which ensures foreign companies get an easier access to take control of intellectual property in India. According to the data from Global EDGE, Chinese government provides more protections on labors to compare with India. Which is a good sign for encouraging FDI in China. According to Ease of Paying Taxes Index on Global EDGE website, which ranks the country based on their total tax rate as well as measuring the administrative burden of paying taxes. India ranked 152 and China ranked 122; this indicates that compare with doing business in India, foreign companies may not have much pressure of paying tax for the government in China, which is positive sign for foreign companies to expanded to Chinese to get rid of the high tax rate. As for economic system, both of China and India used to be in theÃ command economy, but they have reformed their economy system to mixed economy in 1978 and 1991 respectively. From my perspective, the early reform of Chinese economy provides a rapid development of the economy in China, which contributes to the higher GDP compare with India now. The economic growth of India is constrained by the inadequate infrastructure, which may creates obstacles for foreign investment. As for cultures, business norm and ethic, India got a huge number of well-educated people skilled in English skill, which is easier for foreign investors to overcome the languages barriers to compare with China. The religion is a factor which foreign investor has to take into account when they want to enter India. Thanks to different religion groups in India, the core value and the norms are widely differ from different religions, which take time to understand those value and norms when doing business among Indians. According to data from The Hofstede Center, China and India almost had the same score in power distance, collectivist culture, masculinity and uncertainty avoidance, but China is more long-term oriented, the investment is tend to be more long-term projects for instance, the real estate. From my perspective, choosing India to invest is a wise decision, the main reason I recommend the India for foreign investment is that companies may not face as much as competition in India compare with China. There are a huge number of multinational firms in China; it is more difficult to be successful due to the fierce competition in China. As for India, where had a more comprehensive legal system, which can reduce the cost of doing business and improve the security of foreign investment. The democratic society may offer more opportunities for foreign investors as well. The India cannot surpass China within a short period of time because of the inadequate infrastructures; the inadequate infrastructures is the key factor which constraints the economic growth in India. It is capital and time-consuming to build infrastructures within a short period of time.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Niki Brown Randi Nedom ASL 1 11/21/11 Loss for Words Paper The book A Loss for Words by Lou Ann Walker is a biography about Lou Ann. Her parents are deaf and she and her sister are hearing. The book describes the troubles and embarrassment she felt and had while growing up. She loved her parents dearly but often felt embarrassed, or infuriated about comments people would make to her about her parents. Lou Ann exclaims that Ã¢â¬Å"their world is deaf, their deaf culture, their deaf friends, and their own sign language it is something separate, something I can never really know, but I am intimate with.Ã¢â¬ (2) Lou Ann was both speaking and she could also sign. She felt it hard to fit into one culture. She had a love for her parents and theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦She herself even though she was not ashamed acted ashamed by not saying anything about what people said. I know she was trying to protect her parents. I think it would have been better if she did say something to those people, not only letting her parent s know but also showing them that she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care what anyone said. It would have shown people that she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care that her parents were deaf. I think her parents would have been proud of her for sticking up for their family. Her parents didnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem the least bit shy about being deaf. They seemed really love their culture and wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t change it for anything. Lou AnnÃ¢â¬â¢s parents also seemed to depend on her a lot. They depended on her to help them when they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand. Since a lot of people donÃ¢â¬â¢t know ASL she was there to help. I think her parents depending on her all the time also had a toll on Lou Ann. She knew she always had to be there to help them with simple things. I think part of her did not want to have the responsibility. I think she just wanted to be a kid most of the time but felt obligated to help her parents, since she had something they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have. Lou Ann states Ã¢â¬Å"from a very early age I ordered for M om and Dad in restaurants and explained what they wanted to clerks. When I was about eight they began giving me their letters so that I could correct the grammar.Ã¢â¬ (21) She lied helping her parents out with the day to day task they could not do,Show MoreRelatedLoss: A Stage of Writing a Research Paper1503 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLoss has everything to do with writing a research paper. It starts with a loss of words when nobody knows what word to pick. Then there is a loss of money because youÃ¢â¬â¢ve had to fuel your car up to go to the Auburn Library and make tons of copies of your research. By the time the thesis is due, a loss of words comes back with a disappearing reason why the word is important. 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